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Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Full remarks: De Mistura steps down



STAFFAN DE MISTURA

SPECIAL ENVOY OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL FOR SYRIA

BRIEFING TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL


17 October 2018
Señor Presidente, Embajador Lorenti, [Sacha Lorenti, Bolivia],
Dear Friends, Members of the Council:
1.      When I briefed you last month, I said that we were approaching a moment of truth in the effort to convene a UN-facilitated, Syrian-led, Syrian-owned constitutional committee. The constitutional committee is the main item which is at the moment operationally left about how to implement [resolution] 2254. Everything else is still there on the table but that one [element] is the most important one at the moment. A credible and balanced committee could be the cornerstone of an inclusive political process for Syrians towards implementing Security Council resolution 2254 – the only one we have.
2.      Yesterday, I consulted the Secretary-General, Antonio Guterres, and received his very clear instructions regarding our accelerated efforts to convene a credible and balanced constitutional committee – the only kind that the UN Secretariat would be willing to convene and the only one it would be willing to be associated with. I will come to those instructions later.
3.      First, let’s be a little bit precise about where we are.
4.      As I told you last month, some things are quite clear. The Government list and the Opposition list of 50 names each for a constitutional committee are not in question. 
5.      But questions continue to be raised, mainly by the Syrian Government, over the composition of the Middle Third list of 50 names. So, let me recall how we did arrive at the Middle Third list that is now on the table, and indeed has already been further revised, more than once, and updated in a new list.
6.      The Sochi Final Statement spoke of the need to include, I quote: “Syrian experts, civil society, independents, tribal leaders and women” (unquote), with (quote) “adequate representation of Syria’s ethnic and religious components” (unquote). The Sochi final statement made clear that it was via the Geneva process, and the facilitation of the Special Envoy, that the final selection would be made.
7.      Actually, in truth, it went even further than that. The Secretary-General has asked me to remind the Council that, in addition to the terms of the Sochi Final statement itself, an explicit UN-Russian understanding was made during the Vienna consultations, which took place just before the UN attended Sochi – namely that I as Special Envoy would be free to draw not only on names emanating from Sochi but also on other names, including of Syrians who did not attend Sochi, if necessary to form a balanced and credible list.
8.      And let me recall also that Security Council resolution 2254 anyway mandates the United Nations to convene parties in the political process, and tasks the Geneva talks to set a schedule and process for drafting a new constitution.
9.      The Middle Third list was developed very carefully, believe me, by the United Nations. We received inputs, listened to many – including the guarantors of course, and also others. Above all, we also did our own careful homework.
10.  We sought out credible and neutral Syrian experts – including people who have played a role in previous constitution-making process – who could bridge build between the sides, and whom the two sides could constructively work with. We looked for respected civil society representatives, independents and other Syrians of standing – individuals who could somehow represent the many Syrians who are not political affiliates but still deserve a stake in their future – as in any other constitutional process.
11.  Of course, we do know that all Syrians, like all of us, have some political opinions or leanings – that is natural. But we sought a fair balance between those leanings, so that no political side could dominate the committee –  this is a key part of what we consider the “credibility and legitimacy” of the list.
12.  We ensured adequate representation of different ethnic, religious and regional backgrounds – as well as a balance between those living inside Syria and the millions of Syrians for the moment living outside their country due to the conflict.
13.  And finally, with the full support of the Secretary-General and as part of our commitment to give effect to Security Council resolutions on women, peace and security, we insisted that a minimum of 30% of the constitutional committee should be women, and this meant bringing many qualified and expert women, of all backgrounds, into the Middle Third.  Indeed, the proposed Middle Third is almost half women. 
14.  That is what has guided the UN effort to facilitate the Middle Third, and to revise it into a new list, as it has already done.
15.  I have also carefully facilitated the development, as 2254 and Sochi both say that I should, on a logical basis, of some basic aspects of process and rules of procedure that could enable the constitutional committee to work.
16.  From the three lists – government, opposition, and middle third – it would be possible to identify a smaller group – 15 from each – to form a drafting body of the constitutional committee. 
17.  The constitutional committee could be mandated to draft for popular approval a constitutional reform, as a contribution to the political settlement in Syria leading to a new political structure, giving effect to the Sochi Final Statement of 30 January 2018, within the context of the Geneva process to implement Security Council resolution 2254. Such a constitutional reform could aim to embody in the constitution and constitutional practices of Syria the letter and spirit of the 12 Principles developed in Geneva, with a lot of hard work, and endorsed in Sochi, which offer the people of Syria a vision of a future that can be shared by all. 
18.  The constitutional committee could work in Geneva with impartial Syrian chairmanship acceptable to all components and supported by UN facilitation, and with appropriate decision-making arrangements. 
19.  These arrangements should all take place consistent with respect for the sovereignty, unity, independence and territorial integrity of Syria, and with UN facilitation to enable the Syrians themselves to engage each other and to independently and democratically determine their own future with dignity.
20.  Clearly, the key parties are the Syrian parties, and equally, the prospect of a constitutional committee being effective does rest also on strong support from key countries. These will be further engaged by us in the coming few weeks.
21.  So, let me start with the Government of Syria. Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Moualem met the Secretary-General during the General Assembly – I also attended the meeting. 
22.  The Foreign Minister on that occasion did strongly cast doubt on the Sochi statement and its outcome, indicating that the Government had very different understandings about those matters. He called for a fundamental reassessment of the work that has been done to date on the Middle Third list and rules of procedure, and on the UN facilitation role.
23.  For his part, the Secretary-General reiterated the Sochi statement and outcome and the mandate of the Security Council, and offered to have me explain the work that has been done on that basis in much more detail. He appealed to the Foreign Minister for the Government to work in partnership with the UN.
24.  For their part, two of the Astana guarantors – Russia and Iran – have also called the Middle Third list into significant question – indicating that it does not meet the requirements of the Government, notwithstanding the extensive consultations and the Sochi understandings. They have at the same time indicated that they continue to engage the Government of Syria on the matters. Senior Russian officials will indeed be in Damascus in the coming days. 
25.  Turkey, which had initially felt that our list could benefit from revision, has indicated lately its full understanding of the logic and composition of the list now on the table.  
26.  For its part, the Syrian Negotiations Committee – “the opposition” – confirmed to the Secretary-General during the General Assembly their readiness to move ahead on the basis of the broad package on the table. The opposition met at the beginning of this week in Riyadh, and most of their nominees for the constitutional committee are at present, while we are talking, sitting together in internal consultations to prepare for their work.
27.  The Small Group of countries – Egypt, France, Germany, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and the United States – have all urged that the United Nations convene the constitutional committee without delay. Similar messages came during the last few days from a large number of European and Arab Foreign Ministers with whom I met during the General Assembly.
Querido Señor Presidente,
28.  I wish to inform the Security Council that the Government of Syria has invited me to Damascus next week. This is a follow-up to the meeting with the Secretary-General during the General Assembly. I plan to engage them on the work that has been done on the Constitutional Committee. I will of course be ready, if the Council so wishes, to report back to it after my visit on whether these direct consultations have produced, as we hope, the approval and agreement on a credible and inclusive third list.
29.  I also intend before the end of the month to invite the Astana guarantors for consultations with me in Geneva, and also to engage the Small Group. That would, in my view, be the last opportunity for putting finishing touches on the preparations for convening a constitutional committee.
30.  I would hope then to be in a position to issue invitations to convene the constitutional committee hopefully during November. I offer no prediction whether  this is possible be possible. What I do know is that after nine months of preparations, it is important to launch a credible constitutional committee and that whatever transpires, I would like to come back and brief you  in November on where we stand.
31.  Let me remind all of us: without steps on a safe, calm and neutral environment, the work of a constitutional committee will not end up being very meaningful. We all know that. But first thing first: the constitutional committee. On this front, despite our best efforts regarding steps on safe, calm and neutral environment, we have seen very few concrete outcomes during 2018. I hope we will see more in the coming months. For instance, the Working Group on the release of detainees and abductees, the handover of bodies and the identification of missing people met again last week in Tehran -- but we keep urging for the first tangible results. Many, many people in Syria are waiting for that.
32.  Let’s look now at the big picture for a moment and then we go back to the constitutional committee. A catastrophe has so far been averted in Idlib, and the Russian-Turkish memorandum of understanding appears to be being implemented. Major strides have been taken in defeating terrorism and this should continue to be a priority. ISIL’s territorial base has largely been erased – though it does remain dangerous. The de facto map of Syria is for the moment relatively stable, but it must not become a de facto soft partition, nor a theatre for new international confrontations. There must therefore be a political path forward. President Putin and President Erdogan said that the Idlib deal offered a window for the constitutional committee to be established and the political process to go ahead. The European Union will host for instance a third Brussels Conference in March 2019 – we know that its decisions will depend on a credible political process. 
33.  The United Nations has done all that it can, and frankly more, to find a way to convene a credible and balanced constitutional committee. We are ready to do more and in an accelerated way during the forthcoming month, taking advantage of the Idlib window of opportunity, but we are not ready to convene a committee that is not credible and balanced.
34.  In that regard, having consulted the Secretary-General, let me also give you some heads up - if I may: I will myself be moving on as of the last week of November. I have had the honor to serve for four years and four months as Special Envoy. I have for some time been discussing with the Secretary-General my desire for purely personal reasons to move on. I have deeply appreciated his constant support and wise counsel on this matter. 
35.  But I will definitely not say goodbyes or engage in reflections today. A month can be a century in politics. We still have a very intense and hopefully fruitful month ahead. I am not laying down the charge until the last hour of the last day of my mandate. In fact, the Secretary-General has instructed me that my last month of service should be used to actively verify whether the UN is in a position or not to convene a credible and balanced constitutional committee and report to the Security Council accordingly. I plan to do so with clarity and frankness, and count on the support of the Security Council and all Syrian counterparts to do so.  
36.  So, let me summarise some bottom lines of my message, which has been long:
1) The Idlib MOU provides a unique window of opportunity for launching a credible and inclusive constitutional committee. We must take advantage of it. This is and remains our aim. And our assessment is that, if there is a political will, there is no reason for the constitutional committee not to convene in November, 10 months after the Sochi declaration;
2) The main reason so far for the delay in convening in Geneva the first session of a credible and inclusive constitutional committee, is the difficulties that the Government finds to accept the current Third list of participants prepared by the UN, as per the Sochi declaration and resolution 2254;
3) I plan to discuss this pending issue during my forthcoming mission to Damascus, and report back to the Secretary-General and the Security Council thereafter on the outcome; 
4) Since my personal plan – purely personal, believe me – in consultation with the Secretary-General, has always been to end my mission for purely personal reasons in the last week of November 2018, which means 4 years and 4 months after the beginning of this mission, my intention, and as per the Secretary-General’s instructions, is to dedicate this crucial last month to actively verify once for all the feasibility of the implementation of a credible and inclusive constitutional committee, and hence also the implementation of the Sochi declaration.
5) I will therefore report in November to the Secretary-General and the Security Council on the status of the implementation of the constitutional committee in order to allow the Secretary-General and the Security Council to draw their own conclusions so that my own successor will be able to start from a clean ground his or her mission.
Thank you.

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Tuesday, April 10, 2018

US draft resolution on Douma



The Security Council,
PP1. Recalling the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC), and its resolutions 2401 (2018), 2319 (2016), 2314 (2016), 2253 (2015), 2235 (2015), 2209 (2015), 2178 (2014), 2118 (2013), 1989 (2011), 1540 (2004) and 1267 (1999),
PP2. Noting that additional allegations of chemical weapons use in Syria continue to be investigated by the Fact-Finding Mission (FFM) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW),  
PP3. Expressing deep concern at the alleged use of chemical weapons in the Douma area outside Damascus in the Syrian Arab Republic on 7 April 2018 reportedly causing large-scale loss of life and injuries, affirming that the use of chemical weapons constitutes a serious violation of international law, and stressing that those responsible for any use of chemical weapons must be held accountable,
PP4. Noting that the Director-General of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has announced, in addition to its ongoing investigation, that its Fact Finding Mission (FFM) is in the process of gathering and analyzing information on this incident from all available sources and will report its findings to States Parties to the CWC,
PP5. Condemning in the strongest terms any use of chemical weapons and toxic chemicals as weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, and expressing grave concern that civilians continue to be killed and injured by chemical weapons and toxic chemicals as weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic,
PP6. Recalling that the Syrian Arab Republic acceded to the CWC, noting that the use of any toxic chemical, such as chlorine, as a chemical weapon in the Syrian Arab Republic is a violation of resolution 2118, and further noting that any such use by the Syrian Arab Republic would constitute a violation of the CWC,
PP7. Reaffirming their grave concern that the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh) and other individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities associated with ISIL (Da’esh) or Al-Qaida, including but not limited to foreign terrorist fighters who have joined ISIL (Da’esh in Syria, groups that have pledged allegiance to ISIL (Da’esh), and Al-Nusra Front (ANF), continue operating in the Syrian Arab Republic,
PP8. Emphasizing the importance of conducting an independent, impartial and transparent investigation that examines relevant evidence with professionalism, and including, where safety and security permits, in coordination with the United Nations Department of Safety and Security and the OPCW, safe travel to sites the investigators deem relevant to the investigation, which could include but is not limited to the site of the alleged attack, and where the investigators determine there are reasonable grounds to believe access is justified based on their assessment of the facts and circumstances known to them at the time, when security conditions allow for safe access;
PP9. Recalling that the FFM is not mandated to reach conclusions about attributing responsibility for chemical weapons use,

1. Reiterates its condemnation in the strongest terms of any use of any toxic chemical, including chlorine, as a weapon in the Syrian Arab Republic and expresses its outrage that civilians continue to be killed and injured by chemical weapons and toxic chemicals as weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic;
2. Reiterates that no party in the Syrian Arab Republic should use, develop, produce, acquire, stockpile, retain, or transfer chemical weapons;
3. Recalls its decision in resolution 2118 that the Syrian Arab Republic shall not use, develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons, or, transfer, directly or indirectly, chemical weapons to other States or non-State actors;
4. Condemns in the strongest terms the continued reported use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, in particular the alleged use of chemical weapons in Douma on 7 April 2018,
5. Expresses its full support to the OPCW FFM, demands that all parties in the Syrian Arab Republic provide unhindered and safe access without delay to any sites deemed relevant by the OPCW FFM, and requests that the FFM report the results of its investigation of the alleged attack in Douma to the Director-General of the OPCW and to the Secretary-General as soon as practicable;
6. Reiterates its demand, reminding in particular the Syrian authorities, that all parties facilitate safe and unimpeded passage for medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their equipment, transport and supplies, including surgical items, to all people in need, particularly in Douma, consistent with international humanitarian law;
7. Decides to establish the United Nations Independent Mechanism of Investigation (UNIMI) for a period of one year with a possibility of further extension and update by the Security Council if it deems necessary;
8. Requests the United Nations Secretary-General, in coordination with the OPCW Director-General, to submit to the Security Council, for its authorization, within 30 days of the adoption of this resolution, recommendations, including elements of Terms of Reference, regarding the establishment and operation of the UNIMI, based on the principles of impartiality, independence and professionalism, to identify to the greatest extent feasible, individuals, entities, groups, or governments who were perpetrators, organizers, sponsors or otherwise involved in the use of chemical weapons, including chlorine or any other toxic chemical, in the Syrian Arab Republic, and expresses its intent to respond to the recommendations, including Terms of Reference, within fifteen days of receipt;
9. Requests further that the United Nations Secretary-General, in coordination with the OPCW Director-General, undertake without delay steps, measures, and arrangements necessary for the speedy establishment and full functioning of the UNIMI, including recruiting impartial and experienced staff with relevant skills and expertise in accordance with the Terms of Reference, and notes due regard should be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as is possible;
10. Reaffirms support to the OPCW and UNIMI as they undertake their respective investigations in a manner they deem appropriate to fulfill their mandate, acknowledges the dangers associated with investigating chemical weapon use in Syria, and highlights the importance of full coordination with the United Nations Department of Safety and Security, and the OPCW, to ensure the FFM and UNIMI can safely travel to sites they deem relevant to their investigation, which could include but is not limited to the site of the alleged attack, where they determine there are reasonable grounds to believe access is justified based on their assessment of the facts and circumstances known to them at the time, when security conditions allow for safe access, and urges all Member States to facilitate such access where possible;
11. Requests the OPCW to provide UNIMI full access to all of the information and evidence obtained or prepared by the OPCW, including, but not limited to, medical records, interview tapes and transcripts, and documentary material, further reaffirms that the UNIMI should work in coordination with the OPCW to fulfill its mandate, and requests that the Secretary-General make the necessary arrangements for UNIMI to liaise closely with the OPCW to expeditiously investigate any incident the OPCW determines involved or likely involved the use of chemicals as weapons in order to identify those involved in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 8 of this resolution;
12. Calls upon all parties within the Syrian Arab Republic, to provide full cooperation with the FFM and UNIMI, and to facilitate immediate and unfettered, safe and secure access to witnesses, evidence, reporting, material and sites relevant to the investigation, in order for the FFM and the UNIMI to accomplish their mandates, further calls upon all parties to pause hostilities in the areas in which the FFM and the UNIMI require access in fulfillment of OP10, to enable where possible safe access for the FFM and the UNIMI to such sites, and encourages UNIMI to inform the Security Council in case they are unable to safely access sites that they deem necessary for their investigation;
13. Recalls its decision in paragraph 7 of resolution 2118 that the Syrian Arab Republic shall cooperate fully with the OPCW and United Nations, including by complying with their relevant recommendations, by accepting personnel designated by the OPCW or the United Nations, by providing for and ensuring the security of activities undertaken by these personnel, by providing these personnel with immediate and unfettered access to and the right to inspect, in discharging  their functions, any and all sites, and by allowing immediate and unfettered access to individuals that the OPCW has grounds to believe to be of importance for the purpose of its mandate, and specifically decides that all parties in the Syrian Arab Republic shall cooperate fully in that regard;
14. Requests the Secretary-General to report whether the information and access described in paragraph 13 of this resolution has been provided in his reports to the Security Council every 30 days pursuant to paragraph 12 of resolution 2118.
15. Encourages the UNIMI where relevant, to consult and cooperate with appropriate United Nations counter-terrorism and non-proliferation bodies, in particular the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 and 1267/1989/2253 ISIL (Da’esh) and Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee, in order to exchange information on non-State actors’ perpetration, organization, sponsorship or other involvement in the use of chemicals as weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic;
16. Requests the UNIMI to retain any evidence related to possible use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic other than those cases in which the FFM determines or has determined that a specific incident in the Syrian Arab Republic involved or likely involved the use of chemicals as weapons, including chlorine or any other toxic chemical, and to transmit that evidence to the FFM through Director-General of the OPCW and to the Secretary-General as soon as practicable;
17. Requests the UNIMI to submit to the Security Council and the OPCW Executive Council its first report within 90 days of the date it commences its full operations, as notified by the United Nations Secretary-General, as well as subsequent reports on its investigations as appropriate thereafter;
18. Requests the Committee established pursuant to Resolution 1540 (2004) to analyze information on trends in the activities of non-State actors involving preparations for use and actual use of chemical weapons in Syria and transmit a report to the Security Council as appropriate;
19. Underlines that the Security Council will thoroughly assess how to take action following the UNIMI’s conclusions, and reaffirms in this regard its decision in response to violations of resolution 2118 to impose measures under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter;
20. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

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Russian draft resolution on Douma, OPCW


 April 10, 2018
The Security Council,
PP1. Recalling the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) ratified by the Syrian Arab Republic on 14 September 2013, and the Council’s resolutions 1540 (2004), 2118 (2013), 2209 (2015), 2235 (2015), 2314 (2016), and 2319 (2016).
PP2. Expressing its deep concern with regard to the alleged incident with use of toxic chemicals as weapon in Douma in the Syrian Arab Republic on 7 April 2018 reportedly causing large-scale loss of life and injuries, affirming that the use of chemical weapons constitutes a serious violation of international law, and stressing that those responsible for any use of chemical weapons must be held accountable.
PP3. Condemning in the strongest terms any use of any toxic chemical as a weapon in the Syrian Arab Republic, and elsewhere.
PP4. Recalling that in resolution 2118 (2013) the Council decided that the Syrian Arab Republic shall not use, develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons or transfer, directly or indirectly, chemical weapons, to other States or non-State actors and underscored that no party in Syria should use, develop, produce, acquire, stockpile, retain or transfer chemical weapons.
PP5. Welcoming the readiness  of  the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to immediately send its Fact Finding Mission (FFM) to the site of the alleged incident in Douma to gather and analyse information on this incident and  report its findings to the OPCW Executive Council.
PP6. Taking note of the invitation of the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic  to the FFM  experts to visit the site of the alleged incident in Douma without any delay.
PP7 Reaffirming its determination to identify and hold accountable  all those responsible for the use of chemicals as weapons on the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic.
PP8. Noting  with  due consideration  the assurances of the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic  and the  military authorities of the Russian Federation in Syria to provide the FFM experts with full security arrangements for a safe access to the site of alleged incident in Douma.

OP1. Reiterates its condemnation in the strongest terms of any use of any toxic chemical as a weapon in the Syrian Arab Republic;
OP2. Expresses its alarm at the allegations of use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, in particular the alleged incident in Douma on 7 April 2018, notes its outrage that individuals reportedly continue to be killed and injured by chemical weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, and reiterates its determination that those responsible must be held accountable;
OP3. Welcomes the decision of the OPCW Director-General to send  the FFM experts for investigation  in accordance with the CWC to the site of the alleged incident in Douma and adjacent areas  and requests the FFM to report the results of this investigation to the OPCW Executive Council  as soon as possible and further requests the Director-General to keep the Security Council informed of the progress;
OP4. Expresses its full support to the OPCW FFM, demands that all parties in the Syrian Arab Republic shall without any delay facilitate free and safe access for the FFM to relevant sites as well as provide any information and evidence, including, but not limited to, medical records, interview tapes and transcripts, and documentary material, in accordance with resolution 2118, in relation to the alleged incident in Douma and adjacent areas;
OP 5. Recalls that in its resolutions 2118 and 2235 it decided that all parties in the Syrian Arab Republic shall cooperate fully with the OPCW and the United Nations;
OP 6. Emphasises that this includes the obligation of all the parties in  the Syrian Arab Republic of complying with their relevant provisions, by accepting personnel designated by the OPCW or the United Nations, by ensuring the security of activities undertaken by these personnel and providing these personnel with immediate and unfettered access to the site of the alleged incident in Douma and adjacent areas; 
OP 7. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council on the implementation of this resolution, and on compliance by all relevant parties in the Syrian Arab Republic, within 15 days of adoption of this resolution and thereafter within the framework of its reporting on resolution 2118 (2013).

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Friday, February 23, 2018

Latest draft resolution on "cessation of hostilities" in Syria


The Security Council,
        Recalling its resolutions 2042 (2012)2043 (2012)2118 (2013)2139 (2014)2165 (2014)2175 (2014)2191 (2014)2209 (2015)2235 (2015)2249 (2015)2254 (2015)2258 (2015)2268 (2016)2286 (2016)2332 (2016)2336 (2016) and 2393 (2017), and its Presidential Statements of 3 August 2011 (S/PRST/2011/16), 21 March 2012 (S/PRST/2012/6), 5 April 2012 (S/PRST/2012/10), 2 October 2013 (S/PRST/2013/15), 24 April 2015 (S/PRST/2015/10) and 17 August 2015 (S/PRST/2015/15), 
        Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Syria, and to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
        Reiterating its grave distress at the continued severity of the devastating humanitarian situation in Syria, including in Eastern Ghouta, Idlib Governorate, Northern Hama Governorate, Rukhban and Raqqa, and at the fact that urgent humanitarian assistance, including medical assistance, is now required by more than 13.1 million people in Syria, of whom 6.1 million are internally displaced, 2.5 million are living in hard-to-reach areas, including Palestinian refugees, and hundreds of thousands of civilians are trapped in besieged areas,
        Expressing outrage at the unacceptable levels of violence escalating in several parts of the country, in particular in Idlib Governorate and Eastern Ghouta but also Damascus City, including shelling on diplomatic premises, and at attacks against civilians, civilian objects and medical facilities, further compounding suffering and displacing large numbers of people, recalling in this regard the legal obligations of all parties under international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as well as all relevant decisions of the Security Council, especially to cease all attacks against civilians and civilian objects, including those involving attacks on schools and medical facilities,
        Expressing concern for those returning to areas, including those retaken from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh), that are contaminated by explosive remnants of war and need resilience and stabilization support and expressing disturbance at the humanitarian situation in Raqqa,
        Reiterating its deep disturbance at the lack of United Nations humanitarian access to besieged populations in recent months, expressing grave alarm at the dire situation of the hundreds of thousands of civilians trapped in besieged areas in the Syrian Arab Republic, especially in Eastern Ghouta, Yarmouk, Foua and Kefraya, and reaffirming that sieges directed against civilian populations in Syria are a violation of international humanitarian law, and calling for the immediate lifting of all sieges,
        Expressing its disturbance at the humanitarian situation for  those stranded in Rukhban and stressing in this regard the need to ensure humanitarian access to Rukhban from inside Syria and the need for a sustainable solution,
        Noting the ongoing work on de-escalation areas to reduce violence as a step towards a comprehensive nation-wide ceasefire, emphasizing the need for all parties to respect their commitments to existing ceasefire agreements, and that humanitarian access must be granted as part of these efforts in accordance with international humanitarian law,
        Reaffirming that Member States must ensure that any measures taken to combat terrorism comply with all their obligations under international law, in particular international human rights, refugee and humanitarian law,
        Emphasizing that the humanitarian situation will continue to deteriorate further in the absence of a political solution to the Syrian conflict in line with resolution 2254 (2015)calling upon all parties to make progress in this regard and to undertake confidence-building measures, including the early release of any arbitrarily detained persons, particularly women and children,
        Expressing outrage at the insufficient implementation of its resolutions 2139 (2014)2165 (2014)2191 (2014)2258 (2015)2268 (2016)2332 (2016) and 2393 (2017),
        Determining that the devastating humanitarian situation in Syria continues to constitute a threat to peace and security in the region,
        Underscoring that Member States are obligated under Article 25 of the Charter of the United Nations to accept and carry out the Council’s decisions,
        1.     Demands that all parties immediately cease hostilities for an initial period of 30 consecutive days throughout Syria to enable the delivery of humanitarian aid and services and medical evacuations of the critically sick and wounded, in accordance with applicable international law;
        2.     Affirms that the cessation of hostilities shall not apply to military operations against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh), Al Qaeda and Al Nusra Front (ANF), and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al Qaeda or ISIL, and other terrorist groups, as designated by the Security Council;
        3.     Calls upon all parties to respect and fulfil their commitments to existing ceasefire agreements, including the full implementation of resolution 2268, furthermore calls upon all Member States to use their influence with the parties to ensure implementation of the cessation of hostilities, the fulfilment of existing commitments and to support efforts to create conditions for a durable and lasting ceasefire and stresses the need for relevant guarantees from those Member States;
        4.     Calls upon all relevant Member States to coordinate efforts to monitor the cessation of hostilities, building on existing arrangements;
        5.     Further demands that, immediately after the start of the cessation of hostilities, all parties shall allow safe, unimpeded and sustained access each week for United Nations’ and their implementing partners’ humanitarian convoys, including medical and surgical supplies, to all requested areas and populations according to United Nations’ assessment of need in all parts of Syria, in particular to those 5.6 million people in 1,244 communities in acute need, including the 2.9 million people in hard-to-reach and besieged locations, subject to standard UN security assessment;
        6.     Demands moreover that, immediately after the start of the cessation of hostilities, all parties shall allow the United Nations and its implementing partners to undertake safe, unconditional medical evacuations, based on medical need and urgency, subject to standard UN security assessment;
        7.     Reiterates its demand, reminding in particular the Syrian authorities, that all parties immediately comply with their obligations under international law, including international human rights law, as applicable, and international humanitarian law, including the protection of civilians as well as to ensure the respect and protection of all medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities, and to fully and immediately implement all provisions of all relevant Security Council resolutions;
        8.     Demands that all parties facilitate safe and unimpeded passage for medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their equipment, transport and supplies, including surgical items, to all people in need, consistent with international humanitarian law and reiterates its demand that all parties demilitarize medical facilities, schools and other civilian facilities and avoid establishing military positions in populated areas and desist from attacks directed against civilian objects;
        9.     Takes note with appreciation of the five requests identified by the Emergency Relief Coordinator on 11 January 2018 during his mission to Syria, and calls upon all parties to facilitate the implementation of these five requests and others to ensure principled, sustained and improved humanitarian assistance to Syria in 2018;
        10.    Calls upon all parties to immediately lift the sieges of populated areas, including in Eastern Ghouta, Yarmouk, Foua and Kefraya, and demands that all parties allow the delivery of humanitarian assistance, including medical assistance, cease depriving civilians of food and medicine indispensable to their survival, and enable the rapid, safe and unhindered evacuation of all civilians who wish to leave, and underscores the need for the parties to agree on humanitarian pauses, days of tranquillity, localized ceasefires and truces to allow humanitarian agencies safe and unhindered access to all affected areas in Syria, recalling that starvation of civilians as a method of combat is prohibited by international humanitarian law;
        11.    Calls for humanitarian mine action to be accelerated as a matter of urgency throughout Syria;
        12.    Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council on the implementation of this resolution, and on compliance by all relevant parties in Syria, within 15 days of adoption of this resolution and thereafter within the framework of its reporting on resolutions 2139 (2014)2165 (2014)2191 (2014)2258 (2015)2332 (2016) and 2393 (2017);
        13.    Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.