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Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Security Council imposes first sanctions on South Sudan - Names here

1. GABRIEL JOK RIAK

Draft List Entry

SSi.XXX Name: 1: Gabriel 2: Jok Riak 3: na 4: na
Name (original script): na
Title: Lieutenant General 
Designation: Sudan People’s Liberation Army’s (SPLA) Sector One Commander
DOB: 1966
POB: Bor, Sudan/South Sudan
Good quality a.k.a.: a) Gabriel Jok b) Jok Riak c) Jock Riak 
Low quality a.k.a.: na 
Nationality: South Sudan
Passport no.: na
National identification no.: na 
Address: a) Unity State, South Sudan b) Wau, Western Bahr El Ghazal, South Sudan 
Listed on: [Date] 
Other information: Has commanded SPLA Sector One, which operates primarily within Unity State, since January 2013. In his position as the SPLA Sector One commander, he has expanded or extended the conflict in South Sudan through breaches of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement.  The SPLA is a South Sudanese military entity that has engaged in actions that have extended the conflict in South Sudan, including breaches of the January 2014 Cessation of Hostilities Agreement and the May 9, 2014 Agreement to Resolve the Crisis in South Sudan, which was a re-commitment to the CoHA and has obstructed the activities of IGAD’s Monitoring and Verification Mechanism. 


Draft Narrative Summary:

SSi.XXX GABRIEL JOK RIAK

Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee’s website: 

Gabriel Jok Riak was listed on [Date] pursuant to paragraphs 7(a), 7(f) and 8 of resolution 2206 (2015) for, “actions or policies that have the purpose or effect of expanding or extending the conflict in South Sudan or obstructing reconciliation or peace talks or processes, including breaches of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement;” “the obstruction of the activities of international peacekeeping, diplomatic, or humanitarian missions in South Sudan, including IGAD’s Monitoring and Verification Mechanism or of the delivery or distribution of, or access to, humanitarian assistance;” and as a leader “of any entity, including any South Sudanese government, opposition, militia, or other group, that has, or whose members have, engaged in any of the activities described in paragraphs 6 and 7”.

Additional information: 

Gabriel Jok Riak is the commander of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army’s (SPLA) Sector One, a South Sudanese military entity that has engaged in actions that have extended the conflict in South Sudan, including breaches of the January 2014 Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (CoHA) and the May 9, 2014 Agreement to Resolve the Crisis in South Sudan (May Agreement), which was a re-commitment to the CoHA. 

Jok Riak has commanded SPLA Sector One, which operates primarily within Unity State, since January 2013. SPLA Divisions Three, Four, and Five are subordinate to Sector One and its commander, Jok Riak.

Jok Riak and SPLA Sector One and Three forces under his overall command engaged in several actions, as detailed below, that violated the January 2014 CoHA’s commitments to cease all military actions aimed at opposing forces other provocative actions freeze forces in their current locations, and refrain from activities such as movement of forces or ammunition resupply that could lead to military confrontation.

SPLA forces under Jok Riak’s overall command breached the CoHA agreement several times through outright hostilities.  

On January 10, 2014, an SPLA force under the overall command of Sector One commander Jok Riak captured Bentiu, which had previously been under Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLM-IO) control since December 20, 2013. SPLA Division Three ambushed and shelled SPLM-IO fighters near Leer soon after the signing of the January 2014 CoHA and in mid-April 2014 captured Mayom and killed more than 300 SPLM-IO troops. 

On May 4, 2014, an SPLA force led by Jok Riak again recaptured Bentiu. On state television in Juba, an SPLA spokesman said that the government army commanded by Jok Riak had captured Bentiu at four in the afternoon, adding that Division Three and a special SPLA taskforce were involved. Hours after the May Agreement was announced, SPLA Third and Fourth Division forces engaged and repelled opposition fighters who had earlier attacked SPLA positions near Bentiu and in the northern oil regions of South Sudan. 

Also after the signing of the May Agreement, SPLA Division Three troops recaptured Wang Kai, and the division commander, Santino Deng Wol, authorized his forces to kill anyone carrying weapons or hiding in homes, and ordered them to burn any homes containing opposition forces.

In late April and May 2015, SPLA Sector One forces led by Jok Riak conducted a full-scale military offensive against opposition forces in Unity State from Lakes State.

In violation of the terms of the CoHA as detailed above, Jok Riak reportedly sought to have tanks repaired and modified for use against opposition forces in early September 2014. In late October 2014, at least 7,000 SPLA troops and heavy weapons from the Third and Fifth Divisions were redeployed to reinforce Fourth Division troops bearing the brunt of an opposition attack near Bentiu. In November 2014, the SPLA brought new military equipment and weaponry, including armored personnel carriers, helicopters, artillery guns, and ammunition into Sector One’s area of responsibility, likely in preparation for fighting against the opposition. In early February 2015, Jok Riak reportedly ordered armored personnel carriers to be sent to Bentiu, possibly to respond to recent ambushes by the opposition. 

Subsequent to the April and May 2015 offensive in Unity State, SPLA Sector One denied requests by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development Monitoring and Verification Team (IGAD-MVM) in Bentiu to investigate this violation of the CoHA; thereby denying the IGAD-MVM freedom of movement to carry out its mandate.

Additionally, in April 2014, Jok Riak expanded the conflict in South Sudan by reportedly assisting in arming and mobilizing as many as 1,000 Dinka youths to supplement traditional SPLA forces.


2. SIMON GATWECH DUAL

Draft List Entry

SSi.XXX Name: 1: Simon 2: Gatwech 3: Dual 4: na
Name (original script): na
Title: Major General
Designation: Chief of General Staff, SPLA in Opposition
DOB: 1953
POB: a) Akobo, Jonglei State, Sudan/South Sudan b) Uror County, Jonglei State, Sudan/South Sudan
Good quality a.k.a.: a) Simon Gatwich Dual b) Simon Getwech Dual c) Simon Gatwec Duel d) Simon Gatweach e) Simon Gatwick f) Simon Gatwech g) Simon Garwich
Low quality a.k.a.: a) General Gaduel b) Dhual
Nationality: na
Passport no.: na
National identification no.: na 
Address: Jonglei State, South Sudan
Listed on: [Date] 
Other information: Is the SPLM-IO Chief of General Staff and was previously the commander of opposition forces in Jonglei State. His forces conducted an early February 2015 attack in Jonglei State, and as of March 2015, he had tried to destroy the peace in Jonglei State through attacks on the civilian population. 

Draft Narrative Summary:

SSi.XXX SIMON GATWECH DUAL

Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee’s website:

Simon Gatwech Dual was listed on [Date] pursuant to paragraphs 6, 7(a), 7(d), and 8 of resolution  2206 (2015) as, “responsible for or complicit in, or having engaged in, directly or indirectly, actions or policies that threaten the peace, security or stability of South Sudan;” “actions or policies that have the purpose or effect of expanding or extending the conflict in South Sudan or obstructing reconciliation or peace talks or processes, including breaches of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement”; “the targeting of civilians, including women and children, through the commission of acts of violence (including killing, maiming, torture, or rape or other sexual violence), abduction, enforced disappearance, forced displacement, or attacks on schools, hospitals, religious sites, or locations where civilians are seeking refuge, or through conduct that would constitute a serious abuse or violation of human rights or a violation of international humanitarian law;” and as a leader “of any entity, including any South Sudanese government, opposition, militia, or other group, that has, or whose members have, engaged in any of the activities described in paragraphs 6 and 7”.

Additional information:

Simon Gatwech Dual (Gatwech Dual) has engaged in actions or policies that threaten the peace, security or stability of South Sudan and is a leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in Opposition (SPLM-IO), an entity that has engaged in: actions that threaten the peace, security or stability of South Sudan; and targeted civilians, including women and children, through the commission of acts of violence.   

Gatwech Dual is the SPLM-IO Chief of General Staff and was previously the commander of opposition forces in Jonglei State. 

In 2014 to 2015, Gatwech Dual had a large number of troops under his command and operated somewhat autonomously in leading attacks. Gatwech Dual oversees the deployment of SPLM-IO and likely the deployment of some White Army (a Nuer youth militia) forces as well.

In late April 2014, forces under Gatwech Dual’s overall command were gaining territory in Jonglei State as they marched on the state capital of Bor.  Gatwech Dual may have used the news of the April 17, 2014 attack on Nuer internally displaced persons at the UN compound in Bor to incite his troops to seek revenge.  The IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism in Upper Nile, Unity and Jonglei states also cited forces under Gatwech Dual in its August 14, 2014 summary of ceasefire violations.

Gatwech Dual’s forces conducted an early February 2015 attack in Jonglei State.  As of March 2015, Gatwech Dual had tried to destroy the peace in Jonglei State through attacks on the civilian population.

In late April 2015, Gatwech Dual was involved in planning and coordinating surprise attacks against South Sudanese government forces in Upper Nile State.  The IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism summary report of cessation of hostilities violations from May 12-31, 2015 lists breaches by opposition forces under Gatwech's control, including an attack on government forces in Ayod.

SPLM-IO forces under Gatwech Dual's command targeted women, children and civilians.  Gatwech Dual reportedly ordered units under his command to kill Dinka prisoners of war (POWs), women, and children, and officers under his command stated that opposition forces should not make any distinctions between different Dinka tribes and should kill all of them.


3. JAMES KOANG CHUOL

SSi.XXX Name: 1: James 2: Koang 3: Chuol 4: na
Name (original script): na
Title: Major General
Designation: na 
DOB: 1961
POB: na
Good quality a.k.a.: a) James Koang Chol Ranley b) James Koang Chol c) Koang Chuol Ranley d) James Koang Chual 
Low quality a.k.a.: na 
Nationality: South Sudan
Passport no.: R00012098, South Sudan
National identification no.: na 
Address: na
Listed on: [Date] 
Other information: Appointed commander of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) Special Division in December 2014.  His forces have been engaged in attacks against civilians. In February 2014, forces under his command attacked United Nations camps, hospitals, churches, and schools, engaging in widespread rape, torture, and the destruction of property, in an attempt to flush out civilians, soldiers, and policemen allied with the government. 
Draft Narrative Summary:

SSi.XXX JAMES KOANG CHUOL

Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee’s website:
James Koang Chuol (Koang) was listed on [Date] pursuant to paragraphs 6, 7 (a), 7 (d) and 8 of resolution 2206 (2015) as, “responsible for or complicit in, or having engaged in, directly or indirectly, actions or policies that threaten the peace, security or stability of South Sudan”; “actions or policies that have the purpose or effect of expanding or extending the conflict in South Sudan or obstructing reconciliation or peace talks or processes, including breaches of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement”; “targeting of civilians, including women and children, through the commission of acts of violence (including killing, maiming, torture, or rape or other sexual violence), abduction, enforced disappearance, forced displacement, or attacks on schools, hospitals, religious sites, or locations where civilians are seeking refuge, or through conduct that would constitute a serious abuse or violation of human rights or a violation of international humanitarian law”; and as a leader “of any entity, including any South Sudanese government, opposition, militia, or other group, that has, or whose members have, engaged in any of the activities described in paragraphs 6 and 7”.  
Additional Information:

James Koang Chuol (Koang) has threatened the peace, security, or stability of South Sudan in his position as a leader of anti-government forces in Unity State, South Sudan, whose members targeted civilians, including women and children, with killing, sexual violence, and committed attacks on schools, hospitals, religious sites, and locations where civilians were seeking refuge.

Koang defected from his position as the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) Fourth Division commander in December 2013. Taking orders from Koang, defecting soldiers executed as many as 260 of their on-base counterparts before targeting and killing civilians in the state capital of Bentiu. 

Koang was appointed commander of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) Special Division in December 2014.  In his new position, Koang led attacks on government forces in Upper Nile State’s Renk and Maban counties in January 2015 that were cited by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development Monitoring and Verification Mechanism as violations of the CoHA.

In February 2014, after Koang was given command of anti-government forces in Unity State, those forces attacked United Nations camps, hospitals, churches, and schools, engaging in widespread rape, torture, and the destruction of property, in an attempt to flush out civilians, soldiers, and policemen allied with the government.  On April 14-15, 2014, Koang’s forces captured Bentiu after heavy fighting and engaged in attacks against civilians. In separate incidents at a Bentiu mosque, church, and abandoned food compound, forces separated civilians who were taking shelter by their ethnicity and nationality before engaging in targeted killings, leaving at least 200 dead and 400 wounded. In mid-September 2014, Koang reportedly ordered his forces to target Dinka civilians during an attack in Upper Nile State.


4. SANTINO DENG WOL

SSi.XXX Name: 1: Santino 2: Deng 3: Wol 4: na
Name (original script): na
Title: Major General
Designation: Commander of the SPLA’s Third Division
DOB: November 9, 1962
POB: Aweil, Sudan/South Sudan
Good quality a.k.a.: a) Santino Deng Wuol b) Santino Deng Kuol 
Low quality a.k.a.: na 
Nationality: na
Passport no.: na
National identification no.: na 
Address: na
Listed on: [Date] 
Other information: Has led and directed military actions against opposition forces and conducted confrontational troop movements in violation of the CoHA.  During May 2015, forces under his command killed children, women and old men, burned property, and stole livestock as they advanced through Unity State towards Thorjath oil field.

Draft Narrative Summary:

SSi.XXX SANTINO DENG WOL

Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee’s website:

Santino Deng Wol was listed on [Date] pursuant to paragraphs 7(a), 7(d) and 8 of resolution 2206 (2015) for, “actions or policies that have the purpose or effect of expanding or extending the conflict in South Sudan or obstructing reconciliation or peace talks or processes, including breaches of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement”; “the targeting of civilians, including women and children, through the commission of acts of violence (including killing, maiming, torture, or rape or other sexual violence), abduction, enforced disappearance, forced displacement, or attacks on schools, hospitals, religious sites, or locations where civilians are seeking refuge, or through conduct that would constitute a serious abuse or violation of human rights or a violation of international humanitarian law”; and as a leader “of any entity, including any South Sudanese government, opposition, militia, or other group, that has, or whose members have, engaged in any of the activities described in paragraphs 6 and 7”

Additional Information:

Santino Deng Wol (Deng Wol) is a Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) Major General and commander of the SPLA’s Third Division, a South Sudanese military entity that has engaged in actions that have extended the conflict in South Sudan, including breaches of the January 2014 Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (CoHA) and the May 9, 2014 Agreement to Resolve the Crisis in South Sudan (May Agreement), which was a re-commitment to the CoHA. 

Deng Wol led and directed military actions against opposition forces and conducted confrontational troop movements in violation of the CoHA.

Soon after negotiators from both sides agreed to cease hostilities, DENG WOL prepared his forces to advance on the Unity State town of Leer.  They subsequently ambushed and shelled rebel fighters near Leer.

In mid-April 2014, Deng Wol’s forces reportedly prepared to recapture Bentiu from anti-government forces.  Later that month, Deng Wol’s forces captured Mayom following a fierce battle in which they killed over 300 opposition forces.  Then, in early May 2014, Deng Wol’s forces captured Tor Abyad, killing opposition forces in the process.  Shortly thereafter, SPLA forces, including Deng Wol’s forces, attacked and recaptured the Unity State town of Wang Kai.  Deng Wol authorized his forces to kill anyone carrying weapons or hiding in homes, and ordered them to burn any homes containing opposition supporters.

Deng Wol’s SPLA Third Division participated in the April-May 2015 offensive in Unity State, during which the SPLA launched a coordinated offensive to take opposition strongholds in Mayom, Guit, Koch, Mayendit, and Leer counties.  Deng Wol’s forces killed children, women and old men, burned property, and stole livestock as they advanced through Unity State towards Thorjath oil field during May 2015.  Additionally, early that month, Deng Wol reportedly pushed for the execution of captured opposition soldiers.



5. MARIAL CHANUONG YOL MANGOK

SSi.XXX Name: 1: Marial 2: Chanuong 3: Yol 4: Mangok
Name (original script): na
Title: na 
Designation: a) Sudan People’s Liberation Army Major General b) Commander, Presidential Guard Unit 
DOB: January 1, 1960
POB: Yirol, Lakes State
Good quality a.k.a.: a) Marial Chinuong b) Marial Chan c) Marial Chanoung Yol d) Marial Chinoum 
Low quality a.k.a.: na 
Nationality: South Sudan
Passport no.: R00005943, South Sudan
National identification no.: na 
Address: na
Listed on: [Date] 
Other information: His Presidential Guard led the slaughter of Nuer civilians in and around Juba, many who were buried in mass graves.  One such grave was purported to contain 200-300 civilians. 


Draft Narrative Summary:

SSi.XXX MARIAL CHANUONG YOL MANGOK

Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee’s website:

Marial Chanuong Yol Mangok was listed on [Date] pursuant to paragraphs 7(a), 7(c), 7(d) and 8 of resolution 2206 (2015) for, “actions or policies that have the purpose or effect of expanding or extending the conflict in South Sudan or obstructing reconciliation or peace talks or processes, including breaches of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement;” “planning, directing, or committing acts that violate applicable international human rights law or international humanitarian law, or acts that constitute human rights abuses, in South Sudan”; “targeting of civilians, including women and children, through the commission of acts of violence (including killing, maiming, torture, or rape or other sexual violence), abduction, enforced disappearance, forced displacement, or attacks on schools, hospitals, religious sites, or locations where civilians are seeking refuge, or through conduct that would constitute a serious abuse or violation of human rights or a violation of international humanitarian law”; and as a leader “of any entity, including any South Sudanese government, opposition, militia, or other group, that has, or whose members have, engaged in any of the activities described in paragraphs 6 and 7”

Additional Information:

Mangok is the commander of the South Sudanese Government’s Presidential Guard, which led the operations in Juba following the fighting that began December 15, 2013.  He executed orders to disarm Nuer soldiers and then ordered the use of tanks to target political figures in Juba, killing 22 unarmed bodyguards of opposition leader Riek Machar and seven bodyguards of former Minister of the Interior Gier Chuang Aluong. 

In the initial operations in Juba, by numerous and credible accounts, Mangok’s Presidential Guard led the slaughter of Nuer civilians in and around Juba, many who were buried in mass graves.  One such grave was purported to contain 200-300 civilians. 


6. PETER GADET

SSi.XXX Name: 1: Peter 2: Gadet 3: na 4: na
Name (original script): na
Title: General; Major General
Designation: na 
DOB: 1957 - 1959
POB: a) Mayom County Unity State b) Mayan, Unity State
Good quality a.k.a.: a) Peter Gatdet Yaka b) Peter Gadet Yak c) Peter Gadet Yaak d) Peter Gatdet Yaak e) Peter Gatdet f) Peter Gatdeet Yaka
Low quality a.k.a.: na
Nationality: na
Passport no.: na
National identification no.: na 
Address: na
Listed on: [Date] 
Other information: Appointed the SPLA-IO’s Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations on December 21, 2014. Forces under his command targeted civilians, including women, in April 2014 during an assault on Bentiu, including targeted killings on the basis of ethnicity. 


Draft Narrative Summary:

SSi.XXX PETER GADET

Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee’s website:

Peter Gadet was listed on [Date] pursuant to paragraphs 7(a), 7(d), 7(e) and 8 of resolution 2206 (2015) for, “actions or policies that have the purpose or effect of expanding or extending the conflict in South Sudan or obstructing reconciliation or peace talks or processes, including breaches of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement”; “the targeting of civilians, including women and children, through the commission of acts of violence (including killing, maiming, torture, or rape or other sexual violence), abduction, enforced disappearance, forced displacement, or attacks on schools, hospitals, religious sites, or locations where civilians are seeking refuge, or through conduct that would constitute a serious abuse or violation of human rights or a violation of international humanitarian law”; “the recruitment of children by armed groups or armed forces in the context of the armed conflict in South Sudan”; and as a leader “of any entity, including any South Sudanese government, opposition, militia, or other group, that has, or whose members have, engaged in any of the activities described in paragraphs 6 and 7”.

Additional Information:

Peter Gadet is the commander of Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) forces that have engaged in actions that have extended the conflict in South Sudan, including breaches of the January 2014 Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (CoHA).

Forces led by Gadet attacked and captured Kaka, Upper Nile State from the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) in late March 2014.  Gadet was subsequently transferred from Jonglei State to Bentiu, where he was named military governor of Unity State, to assist the anti-government forces’ efforts to mobilize the predominantly Bol Nuer population.  Subsequently, Gadet led SPLA-IO attacks in Unity State.  Gadet’s forces were responsible for damaging a partially constructed oil refinery in Unity State being built by a Russian firm.  Gadet’s forces also took control of the Tor Abyad and Kilo 30 areas in Unity State’s oil fields. 

As of mid-April 2014, 50,000 anti-government forces troops surrounded Malakal in preparation for an assault on Bentiu. On April 15, 2014, Gadet’s forces attacked and took control of Bentiu, before subsequently losing control of the city.  Forces led by Gadet targeted civilians, including women, in April 2014 during the assault on Bentiu, including targeted killings on the basis of ethnicity. 

In June 2014, Peter Gadet issued a directive to SPLA-IO commanders to recruit youths in all of the rebel-held counties.

From October 25-29, 2014, forces under Gadet’s command surrounded and attacked Bentiu and Rubkona, briefly seizing the city of Bentiu on October 29 before withdrawing.  

On December 21, 2014, Gadet was appointed the SPLA-IO’s Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations.  Subsequent to this appointment, SPLA-IO forces were cited by the IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism for multiple violations of the CoHA in Unity, Upper Nile, and Jonglei States.


Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Security Council resolution 2222 on protection of journalists


The Security Council

PP1 Bearing in mind its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, and underlining the importance of taking measures aimed at conflict prevention and resolution,  

PP2 Reaffirming its resolutions 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), 1674 (2006) and 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict and its resolution 1738 (2006) on the protection of journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in armed conflicts as well as other relevant resolutions and presidential statements, 

PP3 Reaffirming its commitment to the Purposes of the Charter of the United Nations as set out in Article 1 (1-4) of the Charter, and to the Principles of the Charter as set out in Article 2 (1-7) of the Charter, including its commitment to the principles of the political independence, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States, and respect for the sovereignty of all States, 

PP4 Recalling the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, in particular the Third Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 on the treatment of prisoners of war, and the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977, in particular article 79 of the Additional Protocol I regarding the protection of journalists engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed conflict, 

PP5 Recognizing that the work of journalists, media professionals, and associated personnel often puts them at specific risk of intimidation, harassment and violence in situations of armed conflict

PP6 Reaffirming that parties to an armed conflict bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of affected civilians, including those who exercise their right to freedom of expression by seeking, receiving and disseminating information by different means, online as well as offline, in accordance with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,

PP7 Recognizing the important role of international humanitarian law, and international human rights law as applicable, in protecting journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in armed conflicts,

PP8 Further recognizing that States bear the primary responsibility to respect and ensure the human rights of their citizens, as well as individuals within their territory as provided for by relevant international law, 

PP9 Recalling the right to freedom of expression reflected in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 (“the Universal Declaration”), and recalling also the right to freedom of expression in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1966 (“ICCPR”) and that any restrictions thereon shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary on the grounds set out in paragraph 3 of Article 19 of the ICCPR, 

PP10 Deeply concerned at the frequency of acts of violence in many parts of the world against journalists, media professionals, and associated personnel in armed conflict, in particular deliberate attacks in violation of international humanitarian law,

PP11 Emphasizing that there are existing prohibitions under international humanitarian law against attacks intentionally directed against civilians, as such, which in situations of armed conflict constitute war crimes, and recalling the need for States to end impunity for such criminal acts, 

PP12 Bearing in mind that impunity for crimes committed against journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in armed conflict remains a significant challenge to their   protection and that ensuring accountability for crimes committed against them is a key element in preventing future attacks. 

PP13 Recognizing that journalists, media professionals and associated personnel can play an important role in protection of civilians and conflict prevention by acting as an early warning mechanism in identifying and reporting potential situations that could result in genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity,   

PP14 Reaffirming its condemnation of all incitements to violence against civilians in situations of armed conflict, and condemning the use of the media to incite violence, genocide, crimes against humanity and other serious violations of international humanitarian law, 

PP15 Recalling that States Parties to the Geneva Conventions have an obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed a grave breach of these Conventions, and an obligation to try them before their own courts, regardless of their nationality, or may hand them over for trial to another concerned State provided this State has made out prima facie case against the said persons,

PP16 Further recalling the responsibility of all Member States to comply with their respective obligations to end impunity and to investigate and prosecute those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or other serious violations of international humanitarian law and noting that the fight against impunity for the most serious crimes of international concern committed against civilians has been strengthened through the work on and prosecution of these crimes by the International Criminal Court, in accordance with the principle of complementarity to national criminal jurisdictions as set out in the Rome Statute, ad hoc and mixed tribunals and specialized chambers in national tribunals, 

PP17 Expressing deep concern at the growing threat to the safety of journalists, media professionals, and associated personnel posed by terrorist groups and strongly condemning incidents of killings, kidnapping and hostage taking committed by terrorist groups for any purpose, including raising funds or gaining political concessions, and expressing its determination to prevent kidnapping and hostage taking committed by terrorist groups and to secure the safe release of hostages without ransom payments or political concessions, in accordance with applicable international law, 

PP18 Stressing the contribution that peacekeeping operations and special political missions, where mandated, can make to international efforts to promote and protect human rights, and the protection of civilians, including journalists, media professionals, and associated personnel including through monitoring and reporting on violations and abuses as well as providing support for national governments’ efforts to promote and protect human rights, and in order to strengthen the fight against impunity for crimes committed against civilians, including journalists, media professionals, and associated personnel

PP19 Recognizing the importance of a comprehensive, coherent and action-oriented approach, including in early planning, of protection of civilians in situations of armed conflict. Stressing, in this regard, the need to adopt a broad strategy of conflict prevention, which addresses the root causes of armed conflict in a comprehensive manner in order to enhance the protection of civilians on a long-term basis, including by promoting sustainable development, poverty eradication, national reconciliation, good governance, democracy, the rule of law and respect for and protection of human rights,

PP20 Acknowledging the important role that regional and sub-regional organisations can play in ensuring the protection of journalists, media professionals, and associated personnel in armed conflicts and the importance of effective co-operation between the United Nations and those organizations, 

PP21 Further acknowledging the specific risks faced by women journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in conduct of their work, and underlining in this context the importance of considering the gender dimension of measures to address their safety in situations of armed conflict, 

PP22 Recognizing that the consideration of the issue of protection of journalists in armed conflict by the Security Council is based on the urgency and importance of this issue, and recognizing the valuable role that the Secretary-General can play in providing more information on this issue,  

1. Condemns all violations and abuses committed against journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in situations of armed conflict, and calls upon all parties to armed conflict to bring an end to such practices,

2. Affirms that the work of a free independent and impartial media constitutes one of the essential foundations of a democratic society, and thereby can contribute to the protection of civilians, 

3. Recalls in this regard that journalists, media professionals and associated personnel engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed conflict shall be considered as civilians and shall be respected and protected as such, provided that they take no action adversely affecting their status as civilians. This is without prejudice to the right of war correspondents accredited to the armed forces to the status of prisoners of war provided for in article 4.A.4 of the Third Geneva Convention, 

4 Strongly condemns the prevailing impunity for violations and abuses committed against journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in situations of armed conflict, which in turn may contribute to the recurrence of these acts, 

5. Emphasized the responsibility of States to comply with the relevant obligations under international law to end impunity and to prosecute those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law,

6.  Urges Member States to take appropriate steps to ensure accountability for crimes committed against journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in situations of armed conflict and through the conduct of impartial, independent and effective investigations within their jurisdiction and to bring perpetrators of such crimes to justice, 

7.   Recalls its demand that all parties to an armed conflict comply fully with the obligations applicable to them under international law related to the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including journalists, media professionals and associated personnel, 

8. Urges the immediate and unconditional release of journalists, media professionals and associated personnel who have been kidnapped or taken as hostages, in situations of armed conflict, 

9. Urges all parties involved in situations of armed conflict to respect the professional independence and rights of journalists, media professionals and associated personnel as civilians,

10. Recalls also that media equipment and installations constitute civilian objects, and in this respect shall not be the object of attack or of reprisals, unless they are military objectives,  

 11. Recognizes the important role that education and training in international humanitarian law can play in supporting efforts to halt and prevent attacks against civilians affected by armed conflict, including journalists, media professionals and associated personnel

12. Affirms that United Nations peacekeeping and special political missions, where appropriate should include in their mandated reporting information on specific acts of violence against journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in situation of armed conflict,

13. Urges all parties to armed conflict to do their utmost to prevent violations of international humanitarian law against civilians, including journalists, media professionals and associated personnel, 

14 Calls upon Member States to create and maintain, in law and in practice, a safe and enabling environment for journalists, media professionals and associated personnel to perform their work independently and without undue interference in situations of armed conflict 

15. Stresses the need to ensure better cooperation and coordination at the international level, including among the United Nations and relevant international regional and sub-regional organizations, including through technical assistance and capacity-building, with regard to promoting and ensuring the safety of journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in armed conflicts, 

16. Encourages the United Nations and regional and sub-regional organizations to share expertise on good practices and lessons learned on protection of journalists, media professionals and associated personnel in armed conflict and, in close co-operation, to enhance the coherent and effective implementation of applicable international humanitarian law and relevant Security Council resolutions including those on protection of journalist, media professionals and associated personnel in situations of the armed conflict,

17. Invites States which have not yet done so to consider becoming parties to the additional Protocols I and II of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions at the earliest possible date  

18.  Reaffirms that it will continue to address the issue of protection of journalists in armed conflict.

19. Requests the Secretary-General to include consistently as a sub-item in his reports on the protection of civilians in armed conflict the issue of the safety and security of journalists, [media professionals and associated personnel, including the existence of measures to protect such individuals facing an imminent threat, and to ensure that information on attacks and violence against journalists, [media professionals and associated personnel and preventative actions taken to prevent such incidents is included as a specific aspect in relevant country specific reports.
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Friday, April 24, 2015

Security Council PRST on humanitarian situation in Syria

(DRAFT) PRST: The Impact of the Humanitarian Crisis in Syria on the Neighbouring Countries

The Security Council recalls its resolutions 2042 (2012), 2043 (2012), 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014), 2175 (2014), 2191 (2014), and its Presidential Statements of 3 August 2011 and 2 October 2013.
The Security Council reaffirms its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Syria and all other States affected by the Syrian conflict, and to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. 
The Security Council expresses grave alarm at the significant and rapid deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Syria, including at the fact that over 220,000 people have been killed, including well over 10,000 children since the beginning of the conflict; around half of the population has been forced to flee their homes, including over 3.9 million who have sought refuge in neighbouring countries, among which are nearly 2.1 million children; and that more than 12.2 million people in Syria require urgent humanitarian assistance including 440,000 civilians in besieged areas. 
The Security Council demands that all parties to the Syrian domestic conflict immediately put an end to all forms of violence and reiterates that all parties to the  Syrian domestic conflict, in particular the Syrian authorities, must comply with their applicable obligations under international humanitarian law and international human rights law and respect human rights, and reiterates its demand that they fully and immediately implement the provisions of its resolutions 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014),  and 2191 (2014), particularly through facilitating the expansion of humanitarian relief operations, and the immediate delivery of humanitarian assistance to hard-to-reach and besieged areas across borders and conflict lines.
The Security Council is alarmed that the Syrian crisis has become the largest humanitarian emergency crisis in the world today, threatening peace and security in the region with diverse implications on the neighbouring countries and the displacement of millions of Syrians into those countries, and calls to address further spill-over of the conflict in Syria into the neighbouring countries. 
The Security Council further calls for coordinated international  support to the neighbouring countries hosting Syrian refugees, at their request, in addressing legitimate security concerns and ensuring the safety and security of host communities and refugees, and countering radicalization,  through inter alia the provision of support for effective border management and internal security measures.
The Security Council reiterates its deep appreciation for the significant and admirable efforts that have been made by the countries of the region, notably Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt, to accommodate Syrian refugees and is mindful of the immense costs and multifaceted challenges incurred by these countries as a consequence of the crisis.
The Security Council notes with deep concern that the crisis in Syria has had social, demographic, environmental and economic effects on neighbouring countries which have  exacerbated vulnerabilities; overstretched limited resources and basic social services such as health, water, sanitation, housing capacities, energy and education; aggravated unemployment; diminished trade and investment; and affected regional stability and security. 
The Security Council emphasizes the strain placed on host country education systems by the inflow of refugees and that additional resources will be required to help the 600,000 children outside the school system access quality education.
The Security Council underlines the risk of further regional destabilization if the conflict, refugee crisis and the needs of the host countries are not adequately addressed. The Security Council stresses the importance of funding the humanitarian and development responses to the refugee crisis, providing support for national response plans, addressing the humanitarian needs of refugees, in particular women and children, both in camps and urban areas and through capacity  building and technical support, strengthening the resilience of host countries and communities as components of stabilizing the region, preventing radicalization and countering the threat of terrorism and foreign terrorist fighters.  
The Security Council notes with concern that the international response to the Syrian and regional crisis continues to fall short of meeting the needs as assessed by host governments and the United Nations, and urges all Member States, based on burden-sharing principles, to support the United Nations and the countries of the region, including by adopting medium and long-term responses to alleviate the impact on communities, providing increased, flexible and multi-year predictable funding as well as increasing resettlement efforts, and taking note in this regard of the Berlin Communiqué of 28 October 2014. 
The Security Council urges donors, international financial institutions and UN agencies to consider financing instruments that effectively meet the unique needs of middle-income countries impacted by the Syrian conflict and address its massive structural impact on neighbouring countries.
The Security Council emphasizes the importance of complying with applicable international humanitarian law and refugee law, promoting and protecting the human rights of all people affected by the crisis and respecting the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance, welcomes efforts by host countries in this regard and urges Member States to continue to help them in this effort.
The Security Council welcomes the convening of the Third International Humanitarian Pledging Conference for Syria generously hosted by Kuwait on 31 March 2015 and the USD$3.6 billion pledges made and calls on all Member States to ensure the timely disbursement of pledges.
The Security Council emphasizes that the humanitarian situation will continue to deteriorate in the absence of a political solution, expresses its full support for the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Syria, Mr. Staffan de Mistura, and reiterates that the only sustainable solution to the current crisis in Syria is through an inclusive and Syrian-led political process that meets the legitimate aspirations of the Syrian people, with a view to full implementation of the Geneva Communique of 30 June 2012 endorsed as annex II of its resolution 2118 (2013).
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Monday, April 20, 2015

Security Council Statement on Yarmouk Camp

Press Statement

The Members of the Security Council expressed their deep concern regarding the grave humanitarian situation in Yarmouk Refugee Camp in Syria.

The Members of the Security Council called for unhindered humanitarian access to the Yarmouk Camp and for the protection of civilians inside the Camp. They welcomed UNRWA’s and Deputy Special Envoy recent efforts in Syria and stressed the need to support the emergency relief effort for civilians in Yarmouk including through funding the 30 Million USD emergency appeal and to provide the diplomatic and political support for UNRWA.

The Members of the Security Council underscored support for UN efforts to assist trapped Palestinian refugees in Yarmouk through a three-point plan that includes 1) Providing assistance for civilians who are unwilling or unable to leave Yarmouk 2) Assisting those who want to "temporarily relocate" from the camp to do so in accordance with IHL and with appropriate safeguards that they will be allowed to do so safely and freely 3) Assisting Yarmouk residents who have already fled.

The Members of the Security Council called on all parties to support the UN framework and to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law, international human rights and refugees laws, and demanded that all parties cease all attacks against civilians, including shelling and aerial bombardment.

The Members of the Security Council condemned all acts of terrorism perpetrated and demanded that ISIL and Al-Nusra Front, UNSC-designated terrorist organizations, withdraw from Yarmouk Camp immediately.

The Members of the Security Council called on all parties to immediately implement the relevant Security Council resolutions including Security Council resolutions 2139, 2165 and 2191 and in line with the international humanitarian law. 

The Members of the Security Council stressed that the Council has to remain seized on this matter. 
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