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Saturday, December 31, 2016

Russian - Turkish Resolution (2336) on Syria: Ceasefire, Astana Talks

Russian Federation and Turkey
The Security Council
Recalling all its previous resolutions and Presidential Statements on situation in the Syrian Arab Republic, in particular 2254 (2015) and 2268 (2016), and the Geneva Communique of 30 June 2012, 
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic, and to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
Noting the Joint Statement by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Turkey of December 20, 2016,
Noting with appreciation the mediation efforts undertaken by the Russian Federation and the Republic of Turkey to facilitate the establishment of a ceasefire in the Syrian Arab Republic,
Reiterating its call on the parties to allow humanitarian agencies rapid, safe and unhindered access throughout Syria, as provided for in its relevant resolutions,
Reiterating that the only sustainable solution to the current crisis in the Syrian Arab Republic is through an inclusive and Syrian-led political process based on the Geneva Communiqué of 30 June 2012 as endorsed by resolution 2118 (2013), its resolutions 2254 (2015) and 2268 (2016) and relevant statements of the International Syria Support Group,
1. Welcomes and support the efforts by Russia and Turkey to end violence in Syria and jumpstart a political process, and takes note of the document issued by Russia and Turkey in this regard (S/2016/1133);
2. Stresses the importance of the full implementation of all relevant Security Council resolution, particularly 2254 (2015) and 2268 (2016); 
3. Looks forward to the meeting to be held in Astana, Kazakhstan, between the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic and the representatives of the opposition viewing it as an important part of the Syrian-led political process and an important step ahead of the resumption of negotiation under the auspices of the United Nations in Geneva on 8 February 2017; 
4. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
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Tuesday, December 27, 2016

France, UK draft: Sanctions on Assad's officers, helicopters

Draft and annexes (names) here

Draft UNSCR:
Use of chemical weapons in Syria
Preambular Paragraphs
The Security Council,
PP1. Recalling the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) ratified by the Syrian Arab Republic on 14 September 2013, and the Council’s resolutions 1540 (2004), 2118 (2013), 2209 (2015), and 2235 (2015), (from PP1, UNSCR 2209 but added reference to 2235)
PP2. Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic, (PP2 UNSCR 2118)
PP3. Condemning again in the strongest terms any use of toxic chemicals as a weapon in the Syrian Arab Republic, and reaffirming that the use of chemical weapons constitutes a serious violation of international law, (PP3 and 4, UNSCR 2235)
PP4. Recalling its determination to identify those parties in Syria responsible for the use of any chemical weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, and recalling also the establishment of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) – United Nations Joint Investigative Mechanism (JIM) to identify to the greatest extent feasible individuals, entities, groups, or governments who were perpetrators, organisers, sponsors or otherwise involved in the use of chemical weapons, including chlorine or any other toxic chemical, in the Syrian Arab Republic where the OPCW Fact-Finding Mission (FFM) determines or has determined that a specific incident in the Syrian Arab Republic involved or likely involved the use of chemicals as weapons, (OP4 and 5, UNSCR 2235)

Friday, December 23, 2016

Power's Explanation of Vote on Resolution 2334: US Long-Standing Position

Samantha Power, United States Permanent Representative to the UN, addresses the Council after the vote.

Thank you, Mr. President.

Let me begin with a quote: “The United States will not support the use of any additional land for the purpose of settlements during the transitional period. Indeed, the immediate adoption of a settlement freeze by Israel, more than any other action, could create the confidence needed for wider participation in these talks. Further settlement activity is in no way necessary for the security of Israel and only diminishes the confidence of the Arabs that a final outcome can be freely and fairly negotiated.”

This was said in 1982 by President Ronald Reagan. He was speaking about a new proposal that he was launching to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. While ultimately, of course, President Reagan’s proposal was not realized, his words are still illuminating in at least two respects.

First, because they underscore the United States’ deep and long-standing commitment to achieving a comprehensive and lasting peace between the Israelis and Palestinians. That has been the policy of every administration, Republican and Democrat, since before President Reagan and all the way through to the present day.

Second, because President Reagan’s words highlight the United States’ long-standing position that Israeli settlement activity in territories occupied in 1967 undermines Israel’s security, harms the viability of a negotiated two-state outcome, and erodes prospects for peace and stability in the region. Today, the Security Council reaffirmed its established consensus that settlements have no legal validity. The United States has been sending the message that the settlements must stop – privately and publicly – for nearly five decades, through the administrations of Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and now Barack Obama. Indeed, since 1967, the only president who had not had at least one Israeli-Palestinian-related Security Council resolution pass during his tenure is Barack Obama. So our vote today is fully in line with the bipartisan history of how American Presidents have approached both the issue – and the role of this body.

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Security Council resolution 2334 calls Israel to cease all settlement activities

Samantha Power (top centre), United States Permanent Representative to the UN, signals her country’s abstention in the vote.
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its relevant resolutions, including resolutions 242 (1967), 338 (1973), 446 (1979), 452 (1979), 465 (1980), 476 (1980), 478 (1980), 1397 (2002), 1515 (2003), and 1850 (2008),
Guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and reaffirming, inter alia, the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by force,
Reaffirming the obligation of Israel, the occupying Power, to abide scrupulously by its legal obligations and responsibilities under the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, and recalling the advisory opinion rendered on 9 July 2004 by the International Court of Justice,
Condemning all measures aimed at altering the demographic composition, character and status of the Palestinian Territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem, including, inter alia, the construction and expansion of settlements, transfer of Israeli settlers, confiscation of land, demolition of homes and displacement of Palestinian civilians, in violation of international humanitarian law and relevant resolutions,
Expressing grave concern that continuing Israeli settlement activities are dangerously imperilling the viability of the two-State solution based on the 1967 lines,
Recalling the obligation under the Quartet Roadmap, endorsed by its resolution 1515 (2003), for a freeze by Israel of all settlement activity, including “natural growth”, and the dismantlement of all settlement outposts erected since March 2001,
Recalling also the obligation under the Quartet roadmap for the Palestinian Authority Security Forces to maintain effective operations aimed at confronting all those engaged in terror and dismantling terrorist capabilities, including the confiscation of illegal weapons,
Condemning all acts of violence against civilians, including acts of terror, as well as all acts of provocation, incitement and destruction,
Reiterating its vision of a region where two democratic States, Israel and Palestine, live side by side in peace within secure and recognized borders,
Stressing that the status quo is not sustainable and that significant steps, consistent with the transition contemplated by prior agreements, are urgently needed in order to (i) stabilize the situation and to reverse negative trends on the ground, which are steadily eroding the two-State solution and entrenching a one-State reality, and (ii) to create the conditions for successful final status negotiations and for advancing the two-State solution through those negotiations and on the ground,

  1. Reaffirms that the establishment by Israel of settlements in the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem, has no legal validity and constitutes a flagrant violation under international law and a major obstacle to the achievement of the two-State solution and a just, lasting and comprehensive peace;
  2. Reiterates its demand that Israel immediately and completely cease all settlement activities in the occupied Palestinian territory, including East Jerusalem, and that it fully respect all of its legal obligations in this regard;
  3. Underlines that it will not recognize any changes to the 4 June 1967 lines, including with regard to Jerusalem, other than those agreed by the parties through negotiations;
  4. Stresses that the cessation of all Israeli settlement activities is essential for salvaging the two-State solution, and calls for affirmative steps to be taken immediately to reverse the negative trends on the ground that are imperilling the two-State solution;
  5. Calls upon all States, bearing in mind paragraph 1 of this resolution, to distinguish, in their relevant dealings, between the territory of the State of Israel and the territories occupied since 1967;
  6. Calls for immediate steps to prevent all acts of violence against civilians, including acts of terror, as well as all acts of provocation and destruction, calls for accountability in this regard, and calls for compliance with obligations under international law for the strengthening of ongoing efforts to combat terrorism, including through existing security coordination, and to clearly condemn all acts of terrorism;
  7. Calls upon both parties to act on the basis of international law, including international humanitarian law, and their previous agreements and obligations, to observe calm and restraint, and to refrain from provocative actions, incitement and inflammatory rhetoric, with the aim, inter alia, of de-escalating the situation on the ground, rebuilding trust and confidence, demonstrating through policies and actions a genuine commitment to the two-State solution, and creating the conditions necessary for promoting peace;
  8. Calls upon all parties to continue, in the interest of the promotion of peace and security, to exert collective efforts to launch credible negotiations on all final status issues in the Middle East peace process and within the time frame specified by the Quartet in its statement of 21 September 2010;
  9. Urges in this regard the intensification and acceleration of international and regional diplomatic efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967; and underscores in this regard the importance of the ongoing efforts to advance the Arab Peace Initiative, the initiative of France for the convening of an international peace conference, the recent efforts of the Quartet, as well as the efforts of Egypt and the Russian Federation;
  10. Confirms its determination to support the parties throughout the negotiations and in the implementation of an agreement;
  11. Reaffirms its determination to examine practical ways and means to secure the full implementation of its relevant resolutions;
  12. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council every three months on the implementation of the provisions of the present resolution;
  13. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
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Monday, December 19, 2016

Liechtenstein GA draft on accountability in Syria: International investigation

Christian Wenaweser, Ambassador of Liechtenstein,
addresses the General Assembly

International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to assist in the Investigation and Prosecution of those Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes under International Law committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011


The General Assembly PP1 Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, PP2 Reaffirming its commitment to the sovereignty of the Syrian Arab Republic,
PP3 Recalling the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, the Security Council and the Human Rights Council, in particular Human Rights Council resolution S-17/1 that established the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic,
PP4 Welcoming the ongoing work carried out by the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic and recalling its reports1 and the recommendations contained therein,
PP5 Expressing its appreciation for the work carried out by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons-United Nations Joint Investigative Mechanism and recalling its reports2 and the conclusions contained therein,
PP6 Recognizing the work of Syrian and international civil society actors in documenting violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights law in the Syrian Arab Republic during the conflict,
PP7 Noting with concern the impunity for serious violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights law committed during the conflict, in the Syrian Arab Republic which has provided a fertile ground for further violations and abuses,
PP8 Recalling the statements made by the Secretary-General, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the special procedures of the Human Rights Council that crimes against humanity and war crimes are likely to have been committed in the Syrian Arab Republic,
PP9 Noting the repeated encouragement by the Secretary-General and the High Commissioner for Human Rights for the Security Council to refer the situation in the Syrian Arab Republic to the International Criminal Court,
1. Emphasizes the need to ensure accountability for crimes involving violations of international law, in particular of international humanitarian law and international human rights law, some of which may constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity, committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011, through appropriate, fair and independent investigations and prosecutions at the domestic or international level, and stresses the need to pursue practical steps towards this goal to ensure justice for all victims and contribute to the prevention of future violations;
2. Stresses the need for any political process aimed at resolving the crisis in the Syrian Arab Republic to ensure credible and comprehensive accountability for the most serious crimes committed in the country to bring about reconciliation and sustainable peace;
3. Welcomes the efforts by States to investigate and prosecute crimes within their jurisdiction committed in the Syrian Arab Republic, in accordance with their national legislation and international law, and encourages other States to consider doing the same and to share relevant information to this end with other States;
4. Decides to establish an “International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to assist in the Investigation and Prosecution of those Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes under International Law committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011” under the auspices of the United Nations to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of such crimes and prepare files in order to facilitate and expedite fair and independent criminal proceedings in accordance with international standards, in national, regional or international courts or tribunals that have or may in the future have jurisdiction over these crimes;
5. Requests the Secretary-General, in this regard, within 20 working days of the adoption of this resolution, to develop Terms of Reference of the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism with the support of OHCHR, and requests further that the Secretary-General undertakes without delay the steps, measures and arrangements necessary for the speedy establishment and full functioning of the Impartial and Independent Mechanism, initially funded by voluntary contributions, in coordination with the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic and building on existing capacities, including recruiting or allocating impartial and experienced staff with relevant skills and expertise in accordance with the Terms of Reference;
6. Calls upon all States, all parties to the conflict as well as civil society to cooperate fully with the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to effectively fulfill its mandate, and in particular to provide it with any information and documentation they may possess pertaining to the above-mentioned crimes as well as any other forms of assistance;
7. Requests the United Nations system as a whole to fully cooperate with the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism and to promptly respond to any request, including access to all information and documentation, and decides that the Mechanism closely cooperate with the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic in all aspects of its work;
8. Requests the Secretary-General to report on the implementation of the present resolution within 45 days of its adoption and decides to revisit the question of funding of the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism as soon as possible.
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Sunday, December 18, 2016

French draft on Aleppo: Voting Monday

France: draft resolution

The Security Council,
Recalling all its relevant resolutions, especially 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014), 2191 (2014), 2258 (2015) and 2286 (2016);
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic;
Alarmed by the continued deterioration of the devastating humanitarian situation in Aleppo and by the fact that urgent humanitarian evacuations and assistance are now needed by a large number of Aleppo inhabitants;
Recalling the need for all parties to respect the relevant provisions of international humanitarian law and the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance;
1. Takes note of the efforts to carry out evacuations of civilians and fighters from the districts of the city of Aleppo affected by the conflict;
2. Stresses that these evacuations must be conducted in accordance with international humanitarian law and principles and emphasizes that the evacuations of civilians must be voluntary and to final destinations of their choice, and protection must be provided to all civilians who choose or who have been forced to be evacuated and those who opt to remain in their homes;
3. Requests the United Nations and other relevant institutions to carry out adequate, neutral monitoring and direct observation and to report, as appropriate, on evacuations from eastern districts of Aleppo and other districts of the city, to ensure further deployment of staff for these purposes as needed and demands all parties to provide these monitors with safe, immediate and unimpeded access;
4. Stresses the importance to ensure the voluntary, safe and dignified passage of all civilians from eastern districts of Aleppo or other areas, under the monitoring of and coordination by the United Nations and other relevant institutions, to a destination of their choice; stresses that in such circumstances, priority should be given to the most seriously wounded people and the most vulnerable and calls on all the parties to cooperate with the United Nations in this regard;
5. Demands that all parties allow complete, immediate, unconditional, safe and unhindered access for the United Nations and its implementing partners, in order to ensure that humanitarian assistance reaches people through the most direct route in order to meet basic needs, including the provision of medical care, consistent with the provisions of its resolution 2258 (2015) for the whole of Syria and respect and protect all civilians across Aleppo and throughout Syria; stresses that all parties must respect their obligations under international humanitarian law and, in particular, to respect and protect civilians and civilian objects;
6 Calls on all parties to respect and protect all medical and humanitarian personnel, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities throughout the country, consistent with its resolution 2286 (2016);
7. Requests the Secretary General to take urgent steps to make arrangements, including security arrangements, to allow the observation by the United Nations and other relevant institutions of the well-being of civilians, as well as the full respect of international humanitarian law, inside eastern districts of the city of Aleppo; notify the Security Council about these arrangements and to carry out the above mentioned activity immediately thereupon,
8. Further requests the Secretary General to report to the Security Council on the implementation of this resolution, including by the parties on the ground, within 5 days of adoption of this resolution;

 9. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
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Russia draft resolution on Aleppo

RUSSIAN FEDERATION: DRAFT SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION
The Security Council,
PP1: Recalling all its relevant resolutions, especially 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014), 2191 (2014), 2258 (2015) and 2286 (2016),
PP2: Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic,
PP3: Recalling the need for all parties to respect the relevant provisions of international humanitarian law and the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance,
PP4: Alarmed by the continued deterioration of the devastating humanitarian situation in Aleppo and by the fact that urgent humanitarian evacuations and assistance are now needed by Aleppo inhabitants in vulnerable situation,

  1. Takes note of the efforts to carry out evacuations of civilians and fighters from the districts of the city of Aleppo affected by the conflict;
  2. Stresses that these evacuations must be conducted in accordance with international humanitarian law and principles and emphasizes that the evacuations of civilians must be voluntary and to final destinations of their choice, and protection must be provided to all civilians who choose or who have been forced to be evacuated and those who opt to remain in their homes;
  3. Stresses the importance to ensure the voluntary, safe and dignified passage of all civilians of parts of Aleppo affected by the conflict, under the monitoring of and coordination by the United Nations, to a destination of their choice; stresses that in such circumstances, priority should be given to the most seriously wounded people and the most vulnerable;
  4. Demands that all parties allow complete, immediate, unconditional, safe and unhindered access for the United Nations and its implementing partners, in order to ensure that humanitarian assistance reaches people through the most direct route in order to meet basic needs, including the provision of medical care, consistent with the provisions of its resolution 2258 (2015) for the whole of Syria and respect and protect all civilians in Aleppo, and throughout Syria; stresses that all parties must respect their obligations under international humanitarian law and, in particular, to respect and protect civilians and civilian objects;
  5. Calls on all parties to respect and protect all medical and humanitarian personnel and facilities, their means of transport and equipment, throughout the country, consistent with its resolution 2286 (2016);
  6. Requests the Secretary General to provide arrangements, including security arrangements, in coordination with the interested parties, to allow the United Nations personnel to monitor the condition of civilians remaining in Aleppo in light of international humanitarian law;
  7. Requests the Secretary General to report to the Security Council on the implementation of this resolution, within (5) days of its adoption;
  8. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. 
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Saturday, December 17, 2016

French draft resolution on Aleppo Evacuation: UN monitoring

The humanitarian situation in the Syrian Arab Republic
The Security Council,
PP 1: Recalling all its previous resolutions, especially 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014), 2191 (2014), 2258 (2015) and 2286 (2016);
PP2: Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic;
PP3: Alarmed by the continued deterioration of the devastating humanitarian situation in Aleppo and by the fact that urgent humanitarian evacuations and assistance are now needed by tens of thousands of besieged Aleppo inhabitants;
  1. Takes note of the efforts to carry out evacuations of civilians and opposition fighters from the besieged districts of the city of Aleppo;
  2. Stresses that these evacuations must be conducted in accordance with international humanitarian law and principles and emphasizes that the evacuations of civilians must be voluntary and to final destinations of their choice, and protection must be provided to all civilians who choose or who have been forced to be evacuated and those who opt to remain in their homes;
  3. Stresses the importance to ensure the voluntary, safe and dignified passage of all civilians of besieged parts of Aleppo or other areas, under the monitoring of and coordination by the United Nations and its partners, to a destination of their choice; stresses that in such circumstances, priority should be given to the most seriously wounded people and the most vulnerable;
  4. Demands that all parties allow complete, immediate, unconditional, safe and unhindered access for the United Nations and its implementing partners, in order to ensure that humanitarian assistance reaches people through the most direct route in order to meet basic needs, including the provision of medical care, consistent with the provisions of its resolution 2258 (2015) for the whole of Syria and respect and protect all civilians in besieged parts of Aleppo, and throughout Syria; stresses that all parties must respect their obligations under international humanitarian law and, in particular, to respect and protect civilians and civilian objects;
  5. Calls on all parties to respect and protect all medical and humanitarian personnel, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities throughout the country, consistent with its resolution 2286 (2016);
  6. Requests the Secretary General as a first step immediately to redeploy the United Nations humanitarian staff already on the ground to carry out adequate, neutral monitoring, direct observation and to report on evacuations from besieged parts of Aleppo, to ensure further deployment of staff for these purposes as needed and demands all parties to provide these monitors with safe, immediate and unimpeded access;
  7. Requests the Secretary General to take urgent steps for the observation by the United Nations and its implementing partners of the well-being of civilians, as well as the full respect of international humanitarian law inside Aleppo, and to make necessary arrangements to that effect ;
  8. Further requests the Secretary General to report to the Security Council on the implementation of this resolution, including whether access has been granted and on the basis of the reports of the monitors described in OP 6, within 5 days of adoption of this resolution;
  9. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
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Thursday, December 8, 2016

Revised Canadian UNGA draft requests Guterres to report on protecting civilians in Syria

FINAL December 7, 2016
The Situation in the Syrian Arab Republic

The General Assembly,
PP 1: Guided by its strong commitment to the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations,
PP1bis: Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic,
PP 2: Recalling its resolutions 66/176 of 19 December 2011, 66/253A of 16 February, 2012, 66/253B of 3 August 2012, 67/183 of 20 December 2012, 67/262 of 15 May 2013, 68/182 of 18 December 2013, 69/189 of 18 December 2014, 70/234 of 23 December 2015,  as well as Human Rights Council Resolutions S-16/1 of 29 April 2011, S-17/1 of 23 August 2011, S-18/1 of 2 December 2011, 19/1 of 1 March 2012, 19/22 of 23 March 2012, S-19/1 of 1 June 2012, 20/22 of 6 July 2012, 22/24 of 22 March 2013, 23/1 of 29 May 2013, 23/26 of 14 June 2013, 24/22 of 27 September 2013, 25/23 of 28 March 2014, 31/17 of 23 March 2016, 32/25 of 1 July 2016, and 33/23 of 30 September 2016, S-25/1 of 25 October 2016;
PP 3: Recalling also Security Council Resolutions 2042 (2012) of 14 April 2012, 2043 (2012) of 21 April 2012, 2118 (2013) of 27 September 2013, 2139 (2014) of 22 February 2014, 2165 (2014) of 14 July 2014, 2175 (2014) of 29 August 2014, 2191 (2014) of 17 December 2014, 2209 (2015) of 6 March 2015, 2235 (2015) of 7 August 2015, 2254 (2015) of 18 December 2015, 2258 (2015) of 22 December 2015, 2268 (2016) of 26 February 2016, 2286 (2016) of 3 May 2016 and 2314 (2016) of 31 October 2016, and expressing outrage that these resolutions have not been fully implemented, 
PP3bis: Recalling that, amid expressions of popular discontent over restrictions on the enjoyment of civil, political, economic and social rights, civilian protests erupted in Dar ’a in March 2011, and noting that the excessive and violent oppression of civilian protests by the Syrian authorities, which later escalated to the direct shelling of civilian population areas, fuelled the escalation of armed violence and extremist groups, including so-called ISIL (also known as Da’esh),
PP 4: Expressing outrage at the escalation of violence in the Syrian Arab Republic, and in particular in Aleppo, and the extensive and persistent violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of international human rights law, including those involving the indiscriminate killing and deliberate targeting of civilians and civilian infrastructure,notably through shelling and aerial bombardments, the use of chemical weapons, as concluded by the Joint Investigative Mechanism, and other prohibited weapons, and the use of siege and starvation of civilians as a method of warfare, which havecaused profound suffering and loss of life, have created conditions conducive to the rise and spread of terrorism and violent extremism conducive to terrorism, and have caused an exodus of Syrian refugees,
PP4bis: Recalling the primary responsibility of the Syrian Arab Republic to protect its population, and condemning the repeated disregard of the purpose and principles of the United Nations Charter, and violations of international humanitarian law and of international human rights law, throughout the conflict in Syria, and also recalling the need for all parties to the conflict to fully comply with their obligations under international law, in particular the United Nations Charter, international humanitarian law and international human rights law, and expressing deep concern with the lack of compliance with these obligations,
PP4ter: Expressing alarm at the failure to implement relevant Security Council and General Assembly resolutions and the continued disregard for international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as well as expressing alarm that the Security Council’s responsibility to ensure prompt and effective action has not been further discharged in regards to Syria;
PP5: Expressing grave concern at the continued deterioration of the devastating humanitarian situation in Syria, and the fact that now more than 13.5 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in Syria, expressing grave concern at the increasing number of refugees and internally displaced persons caused by the conflict in Syria, including the nearly6.3 million people whoare internally displaced in addition to the half a million Palestinian refugees in Syria, expressing the gravest concern at the destabilizing effect of the crisis on the region, underlining the extreme urgency of finding a political solution,  andreiterating its appreciation for the significant and admirable efforts that have been made by the countries of the region, notably Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt, to accommodate the more than 4.8million registered refugees who have fled Syria as a result of the ongoing violence,
PP6Expressing further grave concern at the dire situation of the civilian population, in particular of the 974,080 people trapped in besieged areas, as well as the dire situation of nearly 3.9 million people in hard-to-reach areas,
PP8: Strongly condemning and deploring all acts of violence, attacks and threats against the wounded and sick, medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their means of transport, equipment and supplies, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities, and deploring the long-term consequences of such attacks for the civilian population and the healthcare system of Syria, 
PP8bis:  Strongly alarmed that attacks against schools, school children and teachers are commonplace, risking losing a generation as a result of over 2 million out-of-school children and adolescents and one in three schools being damaged, destroyed or occupied,
PP 9Deeply concerned by the situation of vulnerable persons, including women and children, who are subjected to discrimination, sexual and gender-based violence, abduction,  physical abuse, and violation of their privacy and arbitrary arrest and detention, deploring all violations against children including the recruitment and use of children and condemning the use by the Syrian authorities and all other parties of enforced  disappearances, extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions and torture,
PP10: Recalling the Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic of 11 August 2016 which reiterates key recommendations calling for all parties to inter alia restore and revitalize the cessation of hostilities, minimize civilian casualties and end indiscriminate attacks, allow rapid, safe, sustained, unhindered and unconditional access for humanitarian aid and end all sieges immediately,
PP11:Deeply concerned by the presence of terrorist organizations in Syria and the spread of violent extremism conducive to terrorism, strongly condemning all terrorist attacks, abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law carried out by so-called ISIL (also known as Da’esh), Al-Nusra Front (ANF), and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al Qaeda or ISIL (also known as Da’esh), and other terrorist groups, as designated by the Security Council, and reiterating the call on all parties to commit to putting an end to terrorist acts perpetrated by such organizations and individuals, while reaffirming that terrorism in all its forms constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security, and that any acts of terrorism are unjustifiable, regardless of their motivation, wherever, whenever, and by whomsoever committed,
PP12:Recalling the importance of the principles of distinction and proportionality, which inter alia refer to the obligation under international humanitarian law to distinguish between civilian populations and combatants, and the prohibition against indiscriminate attacks, and the obligations to do everything feasible to verify that the objects to be attacked are neither civilians nor civilian objects and are not subject to special protection, and recalling further the obligation to take all other feasible precautions with a view to avoiding and in any event minimizing harm to civilians and civilian objects including schools, water, medical facilities as such and all other objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, 
PP13:  Deeply disturbed by the continued denial of access to urgently needed humanitarian relief , particularly the denial of authorization by the Syrian regime, and the persistent lack of security, lack of freedom of movement and the presence of any other conditions that impede the delivery of  humanitarian assistance and supplies, as assessed and provided by the United Nations, its implementing partners and all other humanitarian actors, to destinations within Syria, including to besieged and hard-to-reach areas, and stressing the need to strengthen a gender perspective in all humanitarian efforts,  
PP14Recalling that all Syrian parties to the conflict shall enable the immediate and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance and stressing that the arbitrary denial of humanitarian access, depriving civilians of objects and assistance indispensable to their survival, including wilfully impeding relief supplies such as food aid and life-saving medical supplies, and the use of starvation as a method of warfare can constitute a war crime,
PP15: Stressing the need to end impunity for serious violations of international humanitarian law and for violations and abuses of international human rights law in Syria, some of which may constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity, and reemphasizing the need for all those responsible to be held accountable; 
PP16:  Emphasizing that the humanitarian situation will continue to deteriorate further in the absence of a political solution, and reiterating that the only sustainable solution to the current crisis in Syria is through an inclusive and Syrian-led political process that meets the legitimate aspirations of the Syrian people,
PP17Reiterating its determination to seek ways and means to protect the Syrian civilian population and persons hors de combat,
1. Demands an immediate and complete end to all attacks on civilians and civilian objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, as well as an immediate end to all sieges in Syria, including in Aleppo,
2. Further demands the immediate cessation of hostilities, as described in Security Council resolution 2268 (2016), as well as rapid, safe, sustained, unhindered and unconditional humanitarian access throughout Syria by the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and all humanitarian actors,
3. Demands that all parties to the Syrian conflict immediately comply with their obligations under applicable international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, including with respect to all besieged and hard-to-reach areas inside Syria;
3bis. Also demands that all parties take all appropriate steps to protect civilians and persons hors de combat, including members of ethnic, religious and confessional communities, and stresses that, in this regard, the primary responsibility to protect its population lies with the Syrian authorities, 
4. Further demands that all parties to the conflict fully and immediately implement all the provisions of Security Council resolutions 2139 (2014), 2165 (2014), 2191 (2014), 2199 (2015), 2209 (2015),2254 (2015), 2258 (2015), and 2268 (2016); and 2286 (2016);
5. Highlights its demand for the full and immediate implementation of Security Council resolution 2254 (2015),which inter alia reiterates that the only sustainable solution to the current crisis in Syria is through an inclusive and Syrian-led political process that meets the legitimate aspirations of the Syrian people, with a view to full implementation of the Geneva Communiqué of 30 June 2012 as endorsed by resolution 2118 (2013), including through the establishment of an inclusive transitional governing body with full executive powers, which shall be formed on the basis of mutual consent while ensuring continuity of governmental institutions, 
6. Reaffirms its support for a credible, inclusive and non-sectarian Syrian-led political process, involving women and civil society, facilitated by the United Nations, requests the Secretary-General through his good offices and the efforts of his Special Envoy for Syria to resume the formal negotiations between representatives of the Syrian authorities and the opposition under the auspices of the United Nations, based on the Geneva Communiqué of 30 June 2012 and relevant Security Council resolutions, with a view to a lasting  political settlement of the crisis, as soon as possible, and urges the representatives of the Syrian authorities and opposition to engage in good faith in these negotiations, 
6bis: Condemns the reported forced displacements of the population in the Syrian Arab Republic and the alarming impact thereof on the demography of the country, and calls upon all parties concerned to cease immediately all activities related to these actions, including any activities that may constitute crimes against humanity;
7:  Emphasizes the need to ensure accountability for crimes involving violations of international law, in particular of international humanitarian law and international human rights law, some of which may constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity, committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011, through appropriate,  appropriate fair and independent investigations and prosecutions at the domestic or international level, and stresses the need to pursue practical steps towards this goal to ensure justice for all victims and contribute to the prevention of future violations,
7bis:​ Urges the Security Council to further exercise its responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security by taking additional measures to address the crisis in the Syrian Arab Republic, and in particular the devastating humanitarian crisis, and stresses in this regard Article 11 of the United Nations Charter,
8. Requests the Secretary-General to report on the implementation of the present resolution, including on the implementation of the cessation of hostilities, in accordance with operative paragraph 2 of this resolution, the extent to which all parties to the Syrian conflict, in particular the Syrian authorities, are complying with their obligations under international humanitarian law and international human rights law, and progress towards a genuine political transition, and to provide recommendations on ways and means to protect civilians in Syria, within 45days of the adoption of this resolution.
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